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Abstractionism – rejected the approximate to the reality of the image forms in painting and sculpture

One of the goals of abstract art is the image of certain combinations of colors and geometric shapes, which makes the viewer feel a sense of integrity and the integrity of the composition. Outstanding personalities: Vasily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov, Pete Mondrian.
The first abstract painting was painted by Vasily Kandinsky in 1910 (currently in the National Museum of Georgia). Thus he opened a new page in the world of painting: abstract art, elevating painting to music.
In painting of the 20th century, Vasily Kandinsky (Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov, who founded “Luchism” in 1910-1912, the creator of Suprematism as a new type of creativity.) Kazimir Malevich, the author of “Black Square”, and Evgeny Mikhnov-Voitenko, whose work distinguishes, among other things, a wide range of areas of abstract method unprecedented in his works.
Several of them, including the “graffiti style”, the artist used to be the first among not only national masters, but also foreigners.
Cubism is similar to abstractionism, which seeks to portray real objects with a set of planes that intersect and create the image of some rectilinear figures that reproduce living nature.

For aesthetic programs of abstractionists was characterized by universalism

Not surprisingly, abstractionists found use of non-visual forms in industrial art, artistic design, architecture (the activities of the Stil group in the Netherlands and the Bauhaus schools in Germany; Kandinsky’s work in the VHUTEMAS; Malevich architects and design projects; the mobilists by Alexander Calder; the designs by Vladimir Tatlin , works by Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevzner). The work of abstract artists contributed to the formation of modern architecture, arts and crafts, design
In the late 1940s, abstract expressionism developed on the basis of lyrical abstractionism in the United States. Representatives of abstract expressionism (Pollock, Marc Toby, Willem de Kuning, Marc Rothko, Arshil Gorki, Franz Kline) proclaimed their method of “unconsciousness” and the automatism of creativity, the unforeseenness of effects (“painting action”). In their aesthetic concepts, there was no longer an idealistic metaphysics, and non-objective composition sometimes became a self-sufficient object, which excluded associations with reality.
The European analogy of abstract expressionism was Tashism, the most prominent representatives of which were Hans Hartung, Pierre Soulage, Wols, Georges Mathieu. Artists sought to use unexpected, unusual combinations of colors and textures, sculptors (Eduardo Chillida, Seymour Lipton and others) created fancy compositions and used unusual methods of processing materials.
In the 1960s, with the decline of abstract expressionism, op art that developed the principles of geometric abstraction, using optical illusions of the perception of planar and spatial objects, became a noticeable trend in abstractionism.
Another direction in the development of geometric abstraction was kinetic art, which beats up the effects of real movement of the entire work or its individual components (Alexander Calder, Jean Tangley, Nicholas Schöffer, Jesus Soto, Taxis). In parallel, a post-pictorial abstraction arose in the USA, the principles of which were the reduction and the ultimate simplification of pictorial forms; having inherited regular geometric shapes from geometric abstraction, the post-pictorial abstraction rounds, “softens” them.
Notable representatives of this trend are Frank Stella, Elsworth Kelly, Kenneth Noland. The ultimate expression of geometric abstraction in sculpture was minimalism, which was formed in the 1960s – 1970s.

Originating in the early 1910s, abstractionism developed rapidly

Appearing in many directions of avant-garde art of the first half of the XX century. The ideas of abstractionism are reflected in the work of expressionists (Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Franz Marc), Cubists (Fernand Leger), Dadaists (Jean Arp), Surrealists (Joan Miro), Italian Futurists (Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Enrico Prumpolini), (Robert Delone, Frantisek Kupka), Russian Suprematists (Kazimir Malevich), “Radiists” (Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova) and Constructivists (Lyubov Popova, Lazar Lissitzky, Alexander Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova), Dutch Neoplasticists (Pete Mondrian, Teo Van Dusburg The bar van der Lek), a number of European sculptors (Alexander Archipenko, Constantin Brancusi, Umberto Boccioni, Antoine Pevsner, Naum Gabo, László Moholy-Nagy, Vladimir Tatlin). Soon after the emergence of abstractionism, two main directions of development of this art emerged.
Geometric abstraction, to the correct geometric forms and stable, “substantial” states (Mondrian, Malevich), and lyrical abstraction preferring more free forms, dynamic processes (Kandinsky, Kupka).
The first international associations of artists-abstractionists (“Circle and Square”, “Abstraction-Creativity”) were formed in the early 1920s – early 1930s in Paris
For aesthetic abstractionist programs was characterized by universalism; abstract art was represented in them as a universal model of the world order, including both the structure of the environment and the structure of society. Working with the primary elements of the pictorial language, abstractionists turned to general compositional principles, the laws of shaping.