For aesthetic programs of abstractionists was characterized by universalism
Not surprisingly, abstractionists found use of non-visual forms in industrial art, artistic design, architecture (the activities of the Stil group in the Netherlands and the Bauhaus schools in Germany; Kandinsky’s work in the VHUTEMAS; Malevich architects and design projects; the mobilists by Alexander Calder; the designs by Vladimir Tatlin , works by Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevzner). The work of abstract artists contributed to the formation of modern architecture, arts and crafts, design
In the late 1940s, abstract expressionism developed on the basis of lyrical abstractionism in the United States. Representatives of abstract expressionism (Pollock, Marc Toby, Willem de Kuning, Marc Rothko, Arshil Gorki, Franz Kline) proclaimed their method of “unconsciousness” and the automatism of creativity, the unforeseenness of effects (“painting action”). In their aesthetic concepts, there was no longer an idealistic metaphysics, and non-objective composition sometimes became a self-sufficient object, which excluded associations with reality.
The European analogy of abstract expressionism was Tashism, the most prominent representatives of which were Hans Hartung, Pierre Soulage, Wols, Georges Mathieu. Artists sought to use unexpected, unusual combinations of colors and textures, sculptors (Eduardo Chillida, Seymour Lipton and others) created fancy compositions and used unusual methods of processing materials.
In the 1960s, with the decline of abstract expressionism, op art that developed the principles of geometric abstraction, using optical illusions of the perception of planar and spatial objects, became a noticeable trend in abstractionism.
Another direction in the development of geometric abstraction was kinetic art, which beats up the effects of real movement of the entire work or its individual components (Alexander Calder, Jean Tangley, Nicholas Schöffer, Jesus Soto, Taxis). In parallel, a post-pictorial abstraction arose in the USA, the principles of which were the reduction and the ultimate simplification of pictorial forms; having inherited regular geometric shapes from geometric abstraction, the post-pictorial abstraction rounds, “softens” them.
Notable representatives of this trend are Frank Stella, Elsworth Kelly, Kenneth Noland. The ultimate expression of geometric abstraction in sculpture was minimalism, which was formed in the 1960s – 1970s.